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Product Name Echinacea Extract Polyphenol
Latin Name Echina Purpurea
Synonyms Echinacea,Echinacea angustifolia,Tincture
Part of use Overground part
CAS NO. 129677-89-0
Appearance Yellow green powder
Specification Polyphenol 4% UV Cichoric acid 0.2% HPLC,Polyphenol 7% UV
Package Packed in paper-drums and two plastic-bags inside. Size:35*51cm N.W.:25kgs/drum. G.W.:28kg/drum
Application apply to health product,feed.

What is Echinacea

Echinacea is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. The echinacea genus has nine species, which are commonly called coneflowers. They are endemic to eastern and central North America, where they are found growing in moist to dry prairies and open wooded areas. They have large, showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The generic name is derived from the Greek word echino, meaning "sea urchin," due to the spiny central disk. These flowering plants and their parts have different purposes. Some species are cultivated in gardens for their showy flowers, and some are traditionally used to treat and prevent common cold, flu, and other infections. Echinacea purpurea is commonly used medicinally. Two of the nine species, E.tennesseeosis and E.levitate, are listed in the United States as endangered species.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

History of Echinacea

Echinacea angustifolia was widely used by the North American Plains Indians for its general medicinal qualities. Echinacea was one of the basic antimicrobial herbs of eclectic medicine from the mid 19th century through the early 20th century, and its use was documented for snakebite, anthrax, and for relief of pain. In the 1930s echinacea became popular in both Europe and America as an herbal medicine. According to Wallace Sampson, MD, its modern day use as a treatment for the common cold began when a Swiss herbal supplement maker was "erroneously told" that echinacea was used for cold prevention by Native American tribes who lived in the area of South Dakota.Although Native American tribes didn't use echinacea to prevent the common cold, some Plains tribes did use echinacea to treat some of the symptoms that could be caused by the common cold: The Kiowa used it for coughs and sore throats, the Cheyenne for sore throats, the Pawnee for headaches, and many tribes including the Lakotah used it as an analgesic.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd Native Americans learned of E.angustifolia by observing elk seeking out the plants and consuming them when sick or wounded, and identified those plants as elk root.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

How Echinacea works (Mechanism of action of echinacea)

Like most unrefined drugs from plant or animal origin, the constituent base for echinacea is complex, consisting of a wide variety of chemicals of variable effect and potency. Some chemicals may be directly antimicrobial, while others may work at stimulating or modulating different parts of the immune system. All species have chemical compounds called phenols, which are common to many other plants. Phenyl propanoid constituents such as cichoric acid and caftaric acid are present in E.purpurea, other phenols include echinacoside, a caffeic acid glycoside, which is found in greater levels within E. angustifolia and E.pallida roots than in other species. Many caffeic acid derivatives are ubiquitous plants constituents with little specific effects other than anti-oxidant activity. Although the phenolic constituents are poorly absorbed and have no dose-response relationship in clinical settings, their relative proportions can serve as markers for species identification and quality control of herbal remedies. Other chemical constituents that may be important in echinacea health effects include alkylamides and polysaccharides.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd The immunomodulatory effects of echinacea preparations are likely caused by fat-soluble alkylamides (alkamides), which occur mostly in E. angustifolia and E. purpurea but not in E.pallida. Alkylamides bind particularly to human CB2 and to a much lesser degree to CB1 cannabinoid receptors; as a result they are implicated in a variety of modulatory functions, including immune suppression, induction of apoptosis, cell migration and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor. These alkylamides, namely, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide, have similar potency to that of THC at the CB2 receptor, with THC being around 1.5 times stronger. However, potency is dramatically less than that of THC at the psychoactive CB1 receptor.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd As with any herbal preparation, individual doses may vary significantly in active chemical composition. In addition to poor process control which may affect inter- and intra-batch homogeneity, species, plant part, extraction method, and contamination or adulteration with other products all lead to variability between products.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

Research and marketing

Echinacea products that are marketed and studied in clinical trials vary widely in composition. They contain different species (E.purpurea, E.angustifolia, E.pallida), different plant segments (roots, flowers, extracts), different preparations (extracts and expressed juice), and different chemical compositions. Well-controlled clinical trials are limited, and many of them are in low quality. There are multiple scientific reviews and meta-analyses published to evaluate the peer reviewed literature on the supposed immunological effects of echinacea. However, the variability of the echinacea products used in the studies limited the comparison of effects and safety among the studies. The results are mixed, inconclusive and have not been approved for any health benefit or anti-disease activity.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd Common coldbBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd The evidence that showed the effectiveness of echinacea products in treating or preventing the common cold is weak.bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd CancerbBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd According to Cancer Research UK: "There is no scientific evidence to show that echinacea can help treat, prevent or cure cancer in any way. Some therapists have claimed that echinacea can help relieve side effects from cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but this has not been proved either."bBEShanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

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